Quantcast
nodot nodot
Tennis SET
January 2004 Article

Latest Tennis SET Article

Tennis SET Archive

Send a message to Jani

Tennis Server
HOME PAGE

Do You Want To Be A Better Tennis Player?

Then Sign Up For A Free Subscription to the Tennis Server INTERACTIVE
E-mail Newsletter!

You will join 25,000 other subscribers in receiving news of updates to the Tennis Server along with monthly tennis tips from tennis pro Tom Veneziano that won't be found on the web site.
 
Best of all, it is free!

Player Profiles:
 
Top Pros (Women)
tennis ball Serena Williams
tennis ball Maria Sharapova
tennis ball Petra Kvitova
tennis ball Simona Halep
tennis ball Eugenie Bouchard
tennis ball Agnieszka Radwanska
tennis ball Ana Ivanovic
tennis ball Caroline Wozniacki
tennis ball Na Li
tennis ball Angelique Kerber
 ... more profiles
 
Top Pros (Men)
tennis ball Novak Djokovic
tennis ball Roger Federer
tennis ball Rafael Nadal
tennis ball Stanislas Wawrinka
tennis ball David Ferrer
tennis ball Tomas Berdych
tennis ball Kei Nishikori
tennis ball Marin Cilic
tennis ball Milos Raonic
tennis ball Andy Murray
 ... more profiles
 
Tennis Features Icon TENNIS FEATURES:

BETWEEN THE LINES - Ray Bowers takes an analytical and sometimes controversial look at the ATP/WTA professional tour.
 
PRO TENNIS SHOWCASE - Tennis match reports and photography from around the world.
 
TURBO TENNIS - Ron Waite turbocharges your tennis game with tennis tips, strategic considerations, training and practice regimens, and mental mindsets and exercises.
 
TENNIS ANYONE? - USPTA Pro John Mills' quick player tip.
 
WILD CARDS - Each month a guest column by a new writer.
 
TENNIS SET - Jani Macari Pallis, Ph.D. looks at tennis science, engineering and technology.
 
MORTAL TENNIS - Greg Moran's tennis archive on how regular humans can play better tennis.
 
MENTAL EQUIPMENT - Explore the mental side of the game with Dr. John Murray.
 
TENNIS WARRIOR - Tom Veneziano's Tennis Warrior archive.
 
HARDSCRABBLE SCRAMBLE - USPTA pro Mike Whittington's player tip archive.
 
TENNIS EQUIPMENT TIPS.

Tennis Community Icon TENNIS COMMUNITY:


Tennis Book, DVD, and Video Index
 
Tennis Server Match Reports
 
Editor's Letter
 
Become a Tennis Server Sponsor

Explore The Tennis Net Icon EXPLORE THE TENNIS NET:

Pro Tennis Calendar & Event Links
 
Tennis News and Live Tennis Scores
 
Tennis Links on the Web
 
nodot
Tennis SET
 
Green Dot
 
Tennis Warehouse Logo
 
Green Dot

 
nodot
Technology On The Line
Automated Line Calling Systems

Jani Macari Pallis, 
Ph.D. Photo
Jani Macari Pallis, Ph.D.

A while back I interviewed Dr. Stuart Miller, the International Tennis Federation's (ITF) Technical Manager. At that time, Dr. Miller mentioned there were several new automated line calling systems on the market. The Cyclops system (used to call balls near the service line - in or out) had been utilized for years at major tournaments. While the ITF had no immediate plans to investigate such systems, Dr. Miller was interested in understanding the accuracy of all of these automated line calling systems.

I have always wondered how those systems worked. Several of the developers/producers of these systems made presentations at the Tennis Science and Technology Congress this past year.

My purpose here is not to question whether these systems should be used. I have just been curious to know how these systems work and thought I would share what I learned. I had a lot of questions and during this fact finding process, determined these questions were shared by others. In some instances I realized these questions/concerns actually defined system limitations or characterized areas of improvement for these systems.

How would you design a line calling system? What does such a system need to accomplish? Clearly it can be difficult and a challenge for a linesperson to judge a ball's split second impact close to the service line. As well, a player's line of sight and visual perspective can prevent them from correctly assessing if a ball is in or out.

When a ball strikes a court, it compresses, deforms and spreads, becoming more oval in shape. Consider a serve that just strikes the outer edge of the service line. It is possible for the back of the ball to "overhang" and touch the service line. Yet, from the receiver's perspective and angle, it may look like the ball was long and did not touch the service line.

The impact mark on some soft surfaces, like clay, can actually be larger than the actual "footprint" the ball makes on initial impact. On some surfaces like grass, the ball can slide after it strikes the court. How would you differentiate between the ball striking a line versus a player's body, racquet, an insect or a few rain sprinkles striking the a court line? Obviously, there are many considerations an automated line calling system must address.

You have probably seen (or heard) the Cyclops system which audibly calls balls in or out at the service line of the US Open as well as other tournaments. First developed in 1979, it was originally an upside-down periscope. The periscope lowered the operator's (which could be a linesman) line of vision down to the court surface. However, it took two people to operate the system and was still dependent on the operator's vision.

The Cyclops system evolved to a five infrared beam electronic system and has been used commercially for 22 years. The beams are emitted from transmitters and received by monitoring boxes which are located 12-17 feet from the sidelines. The beams run parallel to the service line with transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the court.

One beam (the master beam) is positioned over the service line and four beams are positioned outside the service line at 5.1 inch intervals. When the ball crosses a beam and interrupts the signal, the system triggers a light on a handset or panel and, if desired for a fault, an audible sound. When a ball hits the service line, (and therefore is "in") a green or yellow light is triggered, while the four "fault" beams trigger one red light. It is possible for a good ball ("in") to cross the master beam and also cross the other fault beams. However the system has been designed to inhibit the fault triggers once the master beam has been triggered. However, if the ball misses the master beam (misses the service line and is out) it breaks the fault beams, a beep is heard and a red light activated. These beams are narrow enough to be interrupted by the ball but broad enough not to be triggered by an insect or small flying debris. Nevertheless, the system is only used on the service line in singles matches.

Another similar system, by JRM Engineering Ltd., has asserted that there can be certain ball angles which may not be detected with master beam systems due to the placement of the beam. This system uses a larger array of beams versus just a master beam and may provide even better accuracy.

However, Paul DelGrego, president of FastCAM Replay LLC and DEL Imaging Systems LLC first told me about Cyclops several years ago when we were working together on a high speed camera project at the US Open. (DelGrego's team is the group responsible for the "MacCam" which displays high-speed footage of close and controversial line calls.) A comparison using those high speed cameras and the outcome of Cyclops was conducted and the results consistently matched.

One of the most interesting systems has been developed by Signal Processing Systems Inc. in Sudbury, MA. This electronic line calling system uses contact sensors physically embedded in the tennis lines. The sensor looks like a co-axial cable (a long ribbon with integrated insulated wires embedded in it). The ribbon is only .2 millimeters thick and can be completely covered with the coating material used to cover hard courts. For clay courts the sensors can be installed on the underside of a clay court tennis tape.

When the ball hits close to the line, auditory signals are sent to earphones worn by the line umpires. This system is intended to assist the umpire in close call situations and can be used on any line. Although players may step on a line and trigger the system, stepping on the line sounds more like the crunching sound of a footstep in snow versus the sharp thump of the ball. Cyclops has only been used on the service line for singles play, since it can be safe to assume the receiver will not step through the service line during the actual serve. This sensor system, however, can be set up on any lines, both singles and doubles. The system allows lines which are not to be monitored to be "shut off." The earphones are typically wireless.

A different technology is used by Auto-Ref Inc. in Toronto, Canada. This system couples four high-speed digital cameras with computer software which track, determine the trajectory and map the impact point of the ball.

Two sets of two cameras monitor each half of the court. Each camera is connected by a digital video cable to a separate computer. There is also a separate main computer. The computers are connected to one another via wireless technology. This system also has an operator controlled audible sound which designates that a ball is out. The system has several functions: it charts and recognizes a 3D map of the court in computer memory including lines and thickness; tracks the ball as it comes over the net and creates a 3D trajectory; predicts where the ball will strike the court; and determines if the ball is in or out. Additionally, the system has to differentiate the ball's motion from player or audience movement. When the ball is blocked from the cameras view, the system predicts from the information it has where the ball will drop.

I was impressed with the diversity of technology used in these systems as well as the specification and depiction of scenarios these systems attempt to resolve. These innovators and others will undoubtedly continue to address and improve accuracy and consistency of automated line calling in tennis and in other sports.

Happy New Year .. Until Next Month ... Jani

Green DotGreen DotGreen Dot

Tennis SET Archive

If you have not already signed up to receive our free e-mail newsletter Tennis Server INTERACTIVE, you can sign up here. You will receive notification each month of changes at the Tennis Server and news of new columns posted on our site.

This column is copyrighted by Jani Macari Pallis, Ph.D., all rights reserved.

Dr. Jani Macari Pallis is the founder and CEO of Cislunar Aerospace, Inc., an engineering and research firm in San Francisco. In addition to her engineering practice, she has led two collaborations between NASA and Cislunar, creating educational materials on the aerodynamics of sports for pre-college students and educators. As the head of NASA's "Aerodynamics in Sports" project, she has led a team of researchers investigating the aerodynamics, physics and biomechanics of tennis. The group has conducted high speed video data capture at the US Open and research of ball/court interaction, footwork, serve speeds, trajectories and ball aerodynamics. Pallis received a BS and MS from the Georgia Institute of Technology, an MS in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley and a Ph.D. in mechanical and aeronautical engineering from the University of California, Davis. She is a member of the Executive Committee of The International Sports Engineering Association.

Questions and comments about these columns can be directed to Jani by using this form.


 

nodot
nodot
Google
Web tennisserver.com
nodot nodot
The Tennis Server
Ticket Exchange

Your Source for tickets to professional tennis & golf events.
 
Barclays ATP World Tour Finals Tennis Tickets 11/7-11/14
 
Davis Cup Finals: France vs Switzerland Tennis Tickets 11/21
 
Chris Evert Pro-Celeb Tennis Classic Tickets 11/22-11/23
 
2015 BNP Paribas Open Tickets Indian Wells 3/11-3/22
 
2015 Miami Open Tennis Tickets 3/23-4/5
 
2015 US Open Tennis Tickets 8/31-9/13
 

 

Tennis MindGame

 
Popular Tennis books:
 
Smart Tennis by John Murray
 
Winning Ugly: Mental Warfare in Tennis-Lessons from a Master by Brad Gilbert, Steve Jamison
 
The Best Tennis of Your Life: 50 Mental Strategies for Fearless Performance by Jeff Greenwald
 
The Inner Game of Tennis by W. Timothy Gallwey
 
Most Recent Articles:
 
Tennis Warrior: Five Powerful Tennis Concepts by Tom Veneziano.
 
October 2014 Tennis Anyone: Why Can I Not Poach? by John Mills.
 
October 2014 Turbo Tennis: Momentum Revisited by Ron Waite.
 
October 12, 2014 Between The Lines: Home Stretch 2014 -- On the Hard Courts of Asia by Ray Bowers.
 
Tennis Warrior: In Tennis, Principle Trumps Emotion by Tom Veneziano.
 
September 2014 Tennis Anyone: Things To Do and Not To Do by John Mills.
 
September 2014 Turbo Tennis: The Only Thing You Have To Fear Is Fear Itself!!! by Ron Waite.
 
September 9, 2014 Between The Lines: Dissecting U.S. Open 2014 by Ray Bowers.
 
August 2014 Wild Cards: The Tennis Round Table: Interviews With Jim Courier, Todd Martin & Mark Philippoussis in Arizona by Vince Barr.
 
May 2014 Wild Cards: Michael Chang Wins Cancer Treatment Centers of America Tennis Challenge in Arizona by Vince Barr.
 

 

 

 

 
 
Featured events in the Tennis Server Ticket Exchanges:
 
  Featured Tickets:
BNP Paribas Open Tickets Indian Wells CA Tennis Garden
Miami Open Tennis Tickets Miami Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
 

  Featured Tickets:
Western & Southern Open Cincinnati Tennis Tickets Session 13 W&SFG Cincy Mason OH Lindner Family Center Financial Group Masters
Western & Southern Open Cincinnati Tennis Tickets Session 14 W&SFG Cincy Mason OH Lindner Family Center Financial Group Masters
Western & Southern Open Cincinnati Tennis Tickets Session 15 W&SFG Cincy Mason OH Lindner Family Center Financial Group Masters
Western & Southern Open Cincinnati Tennis Tickets Session 16 Finals W&SFG Cincy Mason OH Lindner Family Center Financial Group Masters

  Featured Tickets:
US Open Tennis Tickets Session 11 Third Round New York City NYC NY Flushing Meadows Corona
US Open Tennis Tickets Session 10 Men's Second Round Women's Third Round New York City NYC NY Flushing Meadows Corona
US Open Tennis Tickets Session 9 Men's Second Round Women's Third Round New York City NYC NY Flushing Meadows Corona
US Open Tennis Tickets Session 8 Second Round New York City NYC NY Flushing Meadows Corona

  Featured Tickets:
Sony Open Tennis Session 13 Tickets Miami Men's Singles 3rd Round Women's Singles 4th Round Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Sony Open Tennis Session 14 Tickets Miami Men's Singles 3rd Round Women's Singles 4th Round Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Sony Open Tennis Session 15 Tickets Miami Men's Singles 4th Round Women's Singles Quarterfinals Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Sony Open Tennis Session 16 Tickets Miami Men's Singles 4th Round Women's Singles Quarterfinals Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center

  Featured Tickets:
Sony Open Tennis Session 21 Tickets Miami Men's Singles Semifinals Women's Doubles Semifinals Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Sony Open Tennis Session 22 Tickets Miami Men's Singles Semifinals Women's Doubles Semifinals Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Sony Open Tennis Session 23 Tickets Miami Woman's Singles Final Men's Doubles Final Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Sony Open Tennis Session 24 Tickets Miami Men's Singles Final Women's Doubles Final Key Biscayne FL Crandon Park Center
Great American Beer Festival Tickets Denver CO Colorado Convention Center

 
 
"Tennis Server" is a registered trademark and "Tennis Server INTERACTIVE" is a trademark of Tennis Server. All original material and graphics on the Tennis Server are copyrighted 1994 - by Tennis Server and its sponsors and contributors. Please do not reproduce without permission.

 

Tennis Server
Cliff Kurtzman
Editor-in-chief
2323 Clear Lake City Boulevard
Suite 180-139
Houston, Texas 77062-8120
Phone: (281) 480-6300
Fax: (281) 480-7715
Online Contact Form
How to support Tennis Server as a Sponsor/Advertiser
Tennis Server Privacy Policy